White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain’s White Slaves in America
White Cargo is the forgotten story of the thousands of Britons who lived and died in bondage in Britain’s American colonies.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more than 300,000 white people were shipped to America as slaves. Urchins were swept up from London’s streets to labor in the tobacco fields, where life expectancy was no more than two years. Brothels were raided to provide “breeders” for Virginia. Hopeful migrants were duped into signing as indentured servants, unaware they would become personal property who could be bought, sold, and even gambled away. Transported convicts were paraded for sale like livestock.
Drawing on letters crying for help, diaries, and court and government archives, Don Jordan and Michael Walsh demonstrate that the brutalities usually associated with black slavery alone were perpetrated on whites throughout British rule. The trade ended with American independence, but the British still tried to sell convicts in their former colonies, which prompted one of the most audacious plots in Anglo-American history.
This is a saga of exploration and cruelty spanning 170 years that has been submerged under the overwhelming memory of black slavery. White Cargo brings the brutal, uncomfortable story to the surface.
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... Sir Edward 36, 40 Columbus, Christopher 25, 70, 177 Connecticut 175, 180 convicts call for convict labour 64 conditions in gaols 272 Cross, James 66 fears of transportation 71 Green, William 252 Keeling, Charles 276–8.
... Keeling, Charles 276–8 Lauson, John 257 length of sentences 249 liberated in New York 280 mortality rate 257 mutinies 73, 250, 276–7, 279 prison hulks, see prison hulks Revel, James 252 slaves, described as 247 Table Bay scheme 65–6 ...
Autres éditions - Tout afficher
White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America
Don Jordan,Michael Walsh
Affichage d'extraits - 2007